Grammar for writing in Key Stage 2
Key stage 2 (KS2) is split into lower and upper stages. What children in lower KS2 (year 3 and 4) learn is built upon and developed in upper KS2 (year 5 and 6). In KS2, your child will be learning how to use appropriate grammar for writing to a specific audience and to fulfil a specific purpose. These skills will be tested by the SATs in year 6. Some of the key content that children in KS2 will be learning would have been introduced in key stage 1 (KS1) but as they progress through KS2 they will be taught rules in greater detail.
Nouns and adjectives
Your child will have been introduced to nouns and adjectives in KS1. In KS2, your child will be learning how to use different types of nouns and adjectives, important grammar for writing with more diversity.
The different types of nouns will be revised and consolidated. Therefore, children should know the difference between common nouns (names of things or objects), proper nouns (name of a particular person or place) and pronouns (words that take the place of nouns, such as “he”, “she”, “them” “there” and “it”). Your child should be confident in using these nouns in their writing and using a capital letter if they choose a proper noun. These rules would have been introduced in KS1 but by year 4, your child should be able to use such nouns correctly.
Adjectives are the words that describe the noun. In KS2, your child will be learning how to put adjectives in different places in a sentence to make their writing more interesting. They will also be taught to use more than one adjective in a sentence and how to separate them using a comma. As your child progresses from lower KS2 to upper KS2 their vocabulary should be increasing, giving them more detailed and relevant adjectives to use to describe nouns.
Articles and Prepositions
Your children would have come across articles and prepositions in KS1. However, in KS2 they will be taught what these words mean and how to use them.
Articles are used to identify if the noun is general or specific. Your child will be taught to use “a” to talk about a noun in general but to use “the” when writing about a specific noun. Prepositions are words that tell the reader where or when something is, in relation to something else, such as “on”, “inside”, “after” and “before”.
Children should be comfortable using basic conjunctions (such as “and”) by year 3. As your child progresses through KS2, they should begin to use more sophisticated conjunctions to join sentences together. They should be using words such as “although” and “whenever” to develop their writing style.
Before your child enters KS2 they should be confident in using verbs (action words). As they progress through KS2 they should begin checking their own writing to make sure that every sentence has a verb included. Your child should also be able to use verbs in the present, past and future tense.
Your child’s understanding of verbs in KS1 allows adverbs to be taught in KS2. Adverbs are words that describe the way the verb is done (such as “quickly”). When more than one word is needed to describe the verb (such as “very quickly”), this is called an adverbial phrase. As your child becomes more confident with adverbial phrases in year 5, they should place them in different positions in the sentence, such as before and after the verbs they describe.
Grammar for Writing in KS2: Resources
It is important for children to practice using correct grammar for writing to a specific audience and to write more effectively in KS2. This could be through online games, workbooks or worksheets such as the free one’s provided below.
This sheet tells the story of Rapunzel by Brothers Grimm. Some of the words are missing, which your child will have to fill in. This is a good exercise to challenge children in year 4.
This worksheet helps children to learn the definitions of each of the grammar rules that they should be following.
This sheet includes the grammar rules that children should be following, with examples of sentences.